By Mayo Clinic staff
The first symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease you may notice are increasing forgetfulness and mild confusion. Over time, the disease has a growing impact on your memory, your ability to speak and write coherently, and your judgment and problem solving. If you have Alzheimer’s, you may be the first to notice that you’re having unusual difficulty remembering things and organizing your thoughts. Or you may not recognize that anything is wrong, even when changes are noticeable to your family members, close friends or co-workers.
Brain changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease lead to growing trouble with:
Everyone has occasional memory lapses. It’s normal to lose track of where you put your keys or forget the name of an acquaintance. But the memory loss associated with Alzheimer’s disease persists and gets worse. People with Alzheimer’s may:
• Repeat statements and questions over and over
• Forget conversations, appointments or events, and not remember them later
• Routinely misplace possessions, often putting them in illogical locations
• Eventually forget the names of family members and everyday objects
Disorientation and misinterpreting spatial relationships
People with Alzheimer’s disease may lose their sense of what day it is, the time of year, where they are or even their current life circumstances. Alzheimer’s may also disrupt your brain’s ability to interpret what you see, making it difficult to understand your surroundings. Eventually, these problems may lead to getting lost in familiar places.
Speaking and writing
Those with Alzheimer’s may have trouble finding the right words to identify objects, express thoughts or take part in conversations. Over time, the ability to read and write also declines.
Thinking and reasoning
Alzheimer’s disease causes difficulty concentrating and thinking, especially about abstract concepts like numbers. Many people find it challenging to manage their finances, balance their checkbooks, and keep track of bills and pay them on time. These difficulties may progress to inability to recognize and deal with numbers.
Making judgments and decisions
Responding effectively to everyday problems, such as food burning on the stove or unexpected driving situations, becomes increasingly challenging.
Planning and performing familiar tasks
Once-routine activities that require sequential steps, such as planning and cooking a meal or playing a favorite game, become a struggle as the disease progresses. Eventually, people with advanced Alzheimer’s may forget how to perform basic tasks such as dressing and bathing.
Changes in personality and behavior
Brain changes that occur in Alzheimer’s disease can affect the way you act and how you feel. People with Alzheimer’s may experience:
• Social withdrawal
• Mood swings
• Distrust in others
• Increased stubbornness
• Irritability and aggressiveness
• Changes in sleeping habits
Reprinted with permission of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. All rights reserved.